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热烈祝贺《盐碱地苜蓿全程机械化生产技术》被列入山东省畜牧业主推技术

更新时间:2024-01-01 点击数:324

Warmly congratulate“Saline-alkali land alfalfa whole mechanized production technology” was listed in Shandong province, the main promotion of livestock technology


近日,由山东省畜牧总站会同ok1133诸侯快讯入口联合编写的《盐碱地苜蓿全程机械化生产技术》被山东省畜牧兽医局列入2023年山东省畜牧业主推技术。

Recently, the “Full mechanized production technology of alfalfa in saline-alkali soil”, jointly compiled by Shandong General Animal Husbandry Station and Shandong Lufeng Agricultural Group Co. , Ltd. , has been listed by Shandong animal husbandry and Veterinary Medical Bureau as a 2023 technology for Shandong animal husbandry.

    党的二十大以来,在以习总书记为核心的党中央坚强领导下,山东畜牧业克服了多重挑战,在支持奶业振兴发展苜蓿种植领域取得了阶段性的胜利,但目前仍面临着饲草缺口巨大、品质普遍偏低的窘迫状况。2023年中央一号文指出:“要构建多元化食物供给体系。树立大食物观,加快构建粮经饲统筹、农林牧渔结合、植物动物微生物并举的多元化食物供给体系,分领域制定实施方案。建设优质节水高产稳产饲草料生产基地,加快苜蓿等草产业发展......”。

Since the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) , under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with General Secretary XI at its core, Shandong's animal husbandry has overcome multiple challenges and achieved a phased victory in supporting the revitalization of the dairy industry and the development of alfalfa cultivation, however, there is still a huge gap in forage grass, the quality of the general low status of embarrassment. “We need to build a diversified food supply system,” the 2023 said. Set up a big food concept, accelerate the construction of food, economy and feed co-ordination, agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries, plant and animal micro-organisms, a diversified food supply system, to develop implementation plans in different areas. Construction of high-quality water-saving high-yield and stable production of forage grass production base, to accelerate the development of alfalfa and other grass industry... .. ”.

    山东省滨海盐碱地和内陆盐碱地总面积约为6000公顷,其中可用于耕种的中轻度盐碱地达4400公顷,为种植耐盐牧草储备了大量的土地资源。近年来,我国牧草机械进入高质量发展的快车道,同时先进的进口机具也在大量引进应用,在苜蓿建植、病虫草害防治、刈割、干草调制和青贮制作等环节,都同时能够饱和满足规模化苜蓿种植的全程机械化需求。为打破资源短缺壁垒,在盐碱地大力发展苜蓿产业,打通苜蓿生产全程机械化最后一公里,培养苜蓿生产一线工匠人才,山东省畜牧总站会同ok1133诸侯快讯入口联合制定了《盐碱地苜蓿全程机械化生产技术》。

The total area of saline-alkali land and inland saline-alkali land in Binhai Province is about 6,000 hectares, of which 4,400 hectares can be used for cultivation. In recent years, the forage machinery in our country has entered the fast track of high-quality development, while the advanced imported machinery is also being introduced and applied in large quantities, at the same time, it can satisfy the whole mechanization demand of large-scale alfalfa planting in the links of alfalfa planting, disease, insect and weed control, cutting, hay modulation and silage production. In order to break the barrier of resource shortage, we should develop alfalfa industry vigorously in saline-alkali land, open up the last kilometer of the whole process of alfalfa production mechanization, and train the craftsmen in the front line of alfalfa production, shandong provincial general animal husbandry station and Shandong Lufeng Agricultural Group Co. , Ltd. jointly formulated the“Saline-alkali land alfalfa whole mechanized production technology.”.


附:盐碱地苜蓿全程机械化生产技术要点、适宜区域及注意事项

Attached: full mechanized production of alfalfa saline-alkali technical points, suitable areas and points for attention


、技术要点 Key technical points

   (一)整地造墒技术

 (1) soil preparation technology

    1.整平。苜蓿备种地块一定要提前精细整平,考虑到山东省土地流转实际情况,结合苜蓿规模化种植及现代中大型机械应用等因素,建议使用激光平地机实施作业,单位种植地块面积以20~30亩为宜。精平作业后地表平整,整体效果标准在该地块内平均高低差小于3厘米为宜。

 1. Level. Considering the actual situation of land circulation in Shandong province, considering the factors of large-scale planting of alfalfa and the application of modern medium and large-scale machinery, it is suggested to use laser grader to carry out the operation, unit planting plot area to 20-30 mu is appropriate. After leveling operation, the surface is smooth, and the average height difference of the whole effect standard is less than 3 cm.

利用激光平地机整平作业

Leveling operation with laser grader

      2.深耕。苜蓿播前进行的深耕处理,要打破传统耕种造成的犁底层,有利于苜蓿根系生长,深度≧25厘米。

 2. Deep ploughing. The deep ploughing before sowing of alfalfa should break the bottom layer of the plow caused by traditional cultivation and benefit the growth of alfalfa roots. The depth of the deep ploughing should be 25 cm.

深耕作业

Deep ploughing

     3.碎土。需运用碎土机械如圆盘耙或驱动耙将地块整碎整细。

 3. Break up the soil. The ground shall be broken up into small pieces by means of a soil crushing machine such as a disc rake or a drive rake.

     4.造墒。苜蓿种苗难以克服灌溉或雨后的土壤板结,尽量墒后播种。造墒方式宜采用大水漫灌方式,每亩用水40方左右,待土壤表面开始松软干燥,达到能够承载播种机械状态为宜。

 4.To create moisture. Alfalfa seedlings are difficult to overcome irrigation or soil compaction after rain, as much as possible after sowing moisture. The way of making soil moisture is suitable to use flood irrigation, about 40 square per mu of water, when the soil surface starts to be soft and dry, to be able to carry the state of sowing machinery.

(二)精量播种技术

  (2) precision seeding technology

      1.播种时间。 春季播种在3月15之前(须春季地表解冻深度达到3厘米即可),秋季播种力争在10月1日之前。

 1.Sowing time. Spring sowing before March 15(spring surface thawing depth must reach 3 cm) , autumn sowing before October 1.

      2.种子处理。 种子质量要符合GB4404.1标准,播种前用高效低毒的专用种衣剂进行种子包衣或药剂拌种。

 2.Seed treatment. The seed quality should meet the GB4404.1 standard. The seed should be coated or mixed with high effective and low toxic seed coating agent before sowing.

     3.合理施肥。 每亩总施肥量:氮8公斤,磷8公斤,钾8公斤,硫酸锌3公斤,提倡增施有机肥,合理施用中量和微量元素肥料。待5叶期后每亩追施氮肥15公斤,苜蓿喜钾,建议适当多施钾肥。

 3.Reasonable fertilization. Total amount of fertilizer applied per mu: 8kg N, 8kg P, 8kg K and 3kg znso 4. More organic fertilizer should be applied and moderate and micronutrient fertilizers should be applied rationally. After 5-leaf stage, 15 kg of nitrogen fertilizer per mu should be applied.

抛洒有机肥

Sprinkle organic fertilizer

     4.播种数量。 每亩播种合格净种子1.5公斤左右为宜。

 4.Quantity sown. Each MU sows the qualified net seed 1.5 kilograms or so is suitable.

     5.播种方式。 用专用精量播种机播种,条播,行距≦15厘米,播种深度1.5~2厘米。播种机具匀速行走,保证下种均匀、深浅一致、行距一致,不漏播、不重播,地头地边播种整齐。

 5.Method of sowing. Use Special Precision Seeder to sow, strip sowing, row spacing ≤15 cm, sowing depth 1.5-2 cm. Planter with uniform speed, ensure that the next seed uniform, depth consistent, row spacing consistent, not missed sowing, not reseeding, the edge of the field sowing neatly.

苜蓿播种

Sowing alfalfa

     6.播后镇压。 一般在播后次日,用专用镇压器进行镇压。播种后镇压能保证苜蓿快速出苗及根系正常生长,提高土壤抗旱保墒能力。

 6.Post-broadcast repression. General in the next day after sowing, with a special ballast for suppression. The suppression after sowing can ensure the rapid emergence of alfalfa and the normal growth of root system, and improve the ability of soil drought resistance and moisture conservation.

镇压作业

Repression


(三)苗后管理技术

 (3) post-seedling management techniques

     1.查苗补苗。出苗后及时查苗 对有缺苗断垄的地块,选择与该地块相同品种的种子,及时开沟补种。

1.Check the seedlings to make up the seedlings. Check seedlings in time after seedling emergence, and select the same varieties of seeds with the same plot of land, furrow and make up the seeds in time.

     2.划锄镇压。出苗后遇雨或土壤板结,及时划锄,破除板结,有利于增温保墒。

2.To strike down with a hoe. After the emergence of rain or soil compaction, hoe in time to break the compaction, conducive to warming and moisture conservation.

     3.防除杂草以化学防治为主,防治禾本科杂草选用13%烯草酮,防治双子叶类杂草选用5%咪唑乙烟酸。尽量选择携药量大、雾化覆盖率高的地面行走式药械,无人机喷洒是次要选择。

3.Weed control. 13% Enzodone and 5% imidazethapyr were used to control grass weeds and dicotyledonous weeds respectively. As far as possible to choose a large amount of drug, high atomization coverage of the ground walking medical equipment, unmanned aerial spraying is the secondary choice.

自走式植保机械作业

Self-propelled plant protection machinery

      4.防治病虫害。叶斑病、褐斑病、炭疽病、蚜虫、蓟马、红蜘蛛、苜蓿夜蛾等是常发生的病虫害,达到防治指标时,及时喷施甲基托布津、吡虫啉、扫满净、氯虫苯甲酰胺等防治。

4.Prevention and control of diseases and pests. Leaf spot, brown spot, anthracnose, aphids, thrips, red spider and Alfalfa armyworm are common diseases and pests, timely spraying of thiophanate-methyl, imidacloprid, chloramphenicol, benzamide etc. .

(四)苜蓿机械化裹包青贮技术苜蓿青贮就是将晾晒后干物质达到45%以上的苜蓿进行高密度压实,然后形成厌氧环境条件,抑制和杀灭各种微生物,避免腐败,从而达到长期保存的目的,生产中应用最多的是裹包青贮。苜蓿裹包青贮分为刈割、摊晒、搂草、切碎、添加青贮剂和裹包六道工序;  

 (4)the technology of Medicago sativa mechanized ensilage alfalfa ensilage is the high density compaction of Medicago sativa which has more than 45% dry matter after drying, and then the anaerobic environmental conditions are formed to restrain and kill all kinds of microorganisms and avoid corruption, in order to achieve the goal of long-term preservation, the most widely used in production is wrapped silage. Alfalfa ensilage can be divided into six steps: cutting, spreading, raking, chopping, adding silage agent and ensilage

     1.刈割。 一般在5月上旬现蕾期或初花期刈割,应尽量使用压扁割草机作业。应提前认真收集天气信息,及时掌握短期内天气预报,并综合考虑苜蓿作业面积、干草产量、质量和对应机具作业能力,确定割草时间。一般连续有3-5天的晴天即可。

1.Mowing. Generally in the first ten days of may bud or early flowering mowing, should try to use the press mower operation. The weather information should be collected in advance, the short-term weather forecast should be grasped in time, and the cutting time should be determined according to the alfalfa working area, hay yield, quality and the working ability of the corresponding machinery. Generally there are 3-5 days of continuous sunny days.

刈割作业

Mowing operations


      2.摊晒。 摊晒机作业要尽量匀速行走。

 2.Spread the Sun. Spread the Sun Machine to work as fast as possible.


摊晒作业

Spread the sun work spread the sun work

     3.搂草。 搂草前,利用快速水分测定仪测定干草含水量,搂草时如要调制干草,干草含水量一般不高于13%;如要制作青贮,则含水量不要高于55%。尽量在清晨或傍晚进行搂草作业,宜采用环形路线转大圈作业,避免转急弯。

3.Rake the grass. The moisture content of hay was measured by a rapid moisture meter before raking. When raking hay, the moisture content of hay should not be more than 13% , and when making silage, the moisture content should not be more than 55% . As far as possible in the early morning or evening raking operations, it is advisable to use a circular route to turn in large circles to avoid sharp turns.

搂草作业

Grass raking

     4.切碎。 用专用切碎机械将达到45%以上干物质的苜蓿草条切碎,切碎长度一般在2厘米左右为宜,目前一般选用五征、雷沃、科乐收、克罗尼等大型自走式青贮机械作业。

4.Mince. Using a special chopping machine to cut up alfalfa strips with more than 45% dry matter, the length of the chopping is generally about 2 cm, at present, large self-propelled ensilage machines such as wuzheng, Revò, Keluo and Choroní are commonly used.

利用青贮机进行切碎作业

Use the silage machine for shredding




     5.添加青贮剂。 在切碎的同时向苜蓿碎片均匀的喷洒青贮菌剂,可以加快青贮速度,促进乳酸菌发酵,抑制不良微生物或者增加营养物质。

5.Add silage. Spraying silage microbial agent evenly on alfalfa chips while mincing can speed up silage, promote lactobacillus fermentation, inhibit harmful microorganisms or increase nutrients.

     6.裹包。 运用裹包机械,将塑料包膜对切碎后的草片进行压实包裹的过程,裹包后的成品用专用夹包机入库(场)。

6.Package. The use of packaging machinery, the plastic film on the shredded grass after the compaction of the packaging process, packaging the finished products with a special clamp machine into storage (field) .

苜蓿裹包生产现场

Alfalfa parcel production site

苜蓿裹包机(中间)、专用夹包机(右一)

Clover wrapping machine (middle) , special wrapping machine (first right)

二、适宜区域Suitable area

   本技术适宜在山东境内土壤含盐量小于0.3%的区域内推广应用。

 This technique is suitable for application in Shandong province where the soil salt content is less than 0.3% .

三、注意事项Points for attention

      1. 抢墒情及时播种。播种时间夏末秋初8月下旬最佳,如确需春播,宜于3月初土地解冻后抢墒播种,整地前要做好杂草灭除,出苗后要做好杂草防治。

1.Grab moisture and sow in time. Sowing time in late summer and early autumn in late August is the best. If spring sowing is needed, it should be done in early March after the soil thawing.

      2.控制好播种深度。苜蓿种子细小,一定要浅播,播种深度尽量不要超过2厘米。

2.Control the depth of sowing. Alfalfa seeds small, must be shallow sowing, sowing depth as far as possible not more than 2 cm.

      3.半干青贮时要调节好水分并加菌。苜蓿刈割要根据天气情况确定晾晒时间,确保水分含量在40%-55%之间,并适当添加苜蓿青贮专用菌剂,可提高苜蓿半干青贮成功率。

 3.When semi-dry silage to adjust the water and add bacteria. The success rate of alfalfa semi-dry silage can be improved by determining the drying time according to the weather conditions, ensuring the moisture content between 40% and 55% , and adding proper bacteria for alfalfa silage.

 

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